If we consider the electricity production system of the future:
- Renewable electricity, primarily wind and solar PV, with a primary energy equivalent of 1 kWh per kWhe generated - according to an IEA convention
- Combined cycle power stations with 55-60% efficiency, i.e. up to 1.8 kWh primary energy per unit of generation
- Coal-fired power stations with 40-45% efficiency, i.e. up to 2.5 kWh primary energy equivalent.
- Nuclear power plants with 30% efficiency