- The prospect for enduring indefinitely an adequate level of energy services
- Extraction, transformation, transport and consumption of energy must be benign to people and eco-systems.
In such a scenario, the prospects of energy efficiency would be reduced. Additional transformation steps would reduce the overall efficiency of the energy system. At the same time, world population & economic development will still result in a 3 times larger demand for energy services than today.
As for the nuclear option, as it is disliked by many, a more widespread use of nuclear power is unlikely unless the technology can produce a significant cost advantage.
Sustainable Fossil Fuels would add 25% to the cost of electricity, and the use of hydrogen in cars would increase personal transport by the same. Overall, household spending on energy would increase from 6% to 8% of income.